Electric circuits transfer energy. Electrical energy is converted into light, heat, sound, mechanical work, etc. The byproduct of any circuit is always heat.

**DC current (direct current)**- a steady flow of current in one direction
**AC current (alternating current)**- direction of current flow changes many times a second. In the US, the frequency of change is 60 Hz. Therefore, the current changes direction 120 times per second.
**emf (electromotive force)**- source of energy moving electrons through the circuit
**electric current (symbol is***I*; SI unit is the ampere, or*A*)- flow of charge, or current = charge/sec
- 1 A = 1 C/ sec
**conventional current**- flow of positive charge
**electric power (symbol is***P*; SI unit is watt)- the rate of doing electrical work
- P = VI = (IR)I
- P = I
^{2}R **Watt**- SI unit of power; 1 Watt = 1 Joule/sec = 1 VoltAmp
**electrical work (symbol is***W*; SI unit is Joule)- W = P t
- W = V I t
**resistance (symbol is***R,*; SI unit is ohm or W)- opposition to current flow
- 1 W = 1 V/ 1 A

**Ohm’s law**- for a given resistance, the potential difference is proportional to the current flow
- V = I R

- nature of the material
- length of the conductor
- cross-sectional area of the conductor
- temperature

**galvanometer**- measures small currents
**ammeter**- measures current

ammeters and galvanometers are connected in a circuit, positive to positive and negative to negative; they have very low resistance so that the current flow through them is a maximum; they are connected in series

**voltmeter**- measures potential difference between two points in a circuit

voltmeters are connected in a circuit, positive to negative and negative to positive. They have very high resistance so that the current flow through them is a minimum; they are connected in parallel

**Circuit symbols**

**Series circuit**- resistors are connected so that there is only one path
for the current to flow through the resistors; the current is the same at all points - current is constant in series
**effective resistance (equivalent resistance)**- the resistance of a single resistor that could replace all the resistors in a series circuit
**Kirchoff’s second law**- in any closed circuit loop, the potential energy drops of the individual electrical devices equals the total energy of the circuit; this is a statement of the law of conservation of energy

As resistors are added in series, total resistance increases and total current decreases.

**Steps in simplifying series circuits:**

- find the effective resistance of the circuit
- find the total current using Ohm’s law
- apply Ohm’s law to each individual resistor to determine the individual resistor’s voltage drop

**Parallel circuits**- resistors in parallel have the same
voltage drop across them. The sum of the currents in each parallel branch equals the total current entering the parallel branch of resistors. Voltage is constant in parallel.
**Kirchoff’s first law**- the sum of the currents entering a point is equal to that of the currents leaving the point.

As resistors are added in parallel, total resistance decreases and total current increases.

Power companies maintain a house voltage of 120 V. House appliances are connected in parallel. The more appliances on a circuit, the lower the total resistance, the greater the current. Fuses protect against circuit overloading.

**Steps in simplifying parallel circuits:**

- find the equivalent resistance
- use Ohm’s law to find total current
- apply Ohm’s law to each resistor to find the current in that branch

Complex circuits are a combination of resistors in parallel and in series.

**Steps in simplifying complex circuits:**

- determine the equivalent resistance of each set of resistors in parallel
- determine the total resistance of the circuit
- determine total current
- calculate voltage drops across all series resistors
- calculate currents in each parallel branch